Our Cancer Dictionary

Whether you're preparing for a doctor's appointment or going through your notes afterward, knowing how to pronounce medical terms and their meanings can make a big difference. Here's our collection of important terms to get you started. Hopefully, these will help give you a little understanding during a time that lacks so much clarity.

# A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

A

ABNORMAL TISSUE
(AB-NOR-MOL TISH-YOU)
The accumulation of cells that aren't supposed to be there
Dr. Joe says: Unwanted plants and weeds in a garden.
ACCELERATED PARTIAL BREAST IRRADIATION (APBI)
(AHK-SEL-ER-AH-TID PAR-SHUL BREST IR-RAY-DEE-A-SHUN)
High doses of high energy waves delivered through an implant directly into a small area of the breast
Dr. Joe says: A cleanup crew that kills any remaining dandelion seeds in a very small area of the yard.
ADJUVANT ONLINE
(ADD-JOO-VENT ON-LINE)
An online tool that helps determine the prognosis for several types of cancers
Dr. Joe says: An online calculator that estimates the chance dandelions will come back.
ADJUVANT TREATMENT
(ADD-JOO-VENT TREET-MINT)
Anticancer treatment given after surgery
Dr. Joe says: Applying weed killer to the entire yard after removing the dandelion.
AJCC STAGING SYSTEM
(A-J-C-C STAY-JING SIS-TEM)
The most commonly used method to categorize cancer
Dr. Joe says: A gardener’s method to describe weeds and their spread.
ALOPECIA
(AH-LAH-PEE-SHAH)
Hair loss; a common side effect of chemotherapy
ANAPHYLAXIS
(ANN-AH-FILL-AX-SIS)
An allergic reaction that leads to the swelling of the face and throat and difficulty breathing
ANEMIA
(AH-NEE-ME-AH)
A decrease in the red cells, leading to fatigue and shortness of breath
Dr. Joe says: A drought that results in having very limited water available to carry fertilizer throughout the garden.
ANTIBODY
(AN-TEE-BOD-EE)
A protein that is produced to fight foreign invaders in the body
Anxiety
(ANG-ZAI-EH-TEE)
Feelings of worry, uneasiness, unrest, or nervousness
APOPTOSIS
(A-POP-TOE-SIS)
The programmed death of a cell; when a normal cell is expected to die
Dr. Joe says: When a very old car dies and stops functioning.
AROMATASE INHIBITOR
(AH-ROAM-AH-TASE IN-HIB-IT-ER)
A class of hormonal therapy that blocks the production of estrogen and progesterone
Dr. Joe says: Treatment that prevents gas from being added to a car.
ARRHYTHMIA
(AH-RYTH-MEE-AH)
When the heart beats too fast, too slow, or irregularly
ARTHRITIS
(ARE-THRI-TIS)
A condition that causes the body to attack itself (autoimmune disease), causing inflammation of the joints
ASPIRATION
(AS-PER-A-SHUN)
The withdrawal of fluid or tissue from the body
ASYMPTOMATIC RECURRENCE
(A-SIM-TOE-MAT-IK RE-CUR-ENCE)
Recurrent cancer that has almost no symptoms
Dr. Joe says: When the car is approaching the brick wall at near normal speeds.
ATYPICAL HYPERPLASIA
(A-TIP-EH-KAL HIGH-PER-PLAY-JAH)
An abnormal growth in the breast
Dr. Joe says: An unwanted plant, indicating fertile soil.
AXILLA
(AXE-ILL-AH)
The region under the arm; armpit region
Dr. Joe says: A nearby flowerbed.
AXILLARY LYMPH NODES
(AXE-SEL-LARRY LIMFF NODE)
Glands located in the underarm
Dr. Joe says: A nearby flowerbed.

B

BENIGN
(BE-NINE)
A growth in the body that is neither invasive nor cancerous and has a very low risk of spreading
Dr. Joe says: An unwanted wildflower in your garden.
Biliary cells
(BIL-EE-ER-EE SELS)
Cells that make up the drainage system of the liver
BIOLOGIC MEDICATION
(BYE-OH-LAH-GIK MED-EH-CATE-SHUN)
A substance that is created by living organisms like bacteria, viruses, fungi, plants, cells, and more
BIOLOGICAL MARKERS
Tumor characteristics used to determine the best treatment options and predict outcome
BIOLOGY OF THE TUMOR
Tumor characteristics used to determine the best treatment options and predict outcome
Dr. Joe says: What type of engine is it, and how fast does the weed grow.
BIOPSY
(BYE-OP-SEE)
Removal of a sample or piece of tissue to identify abnormalities
Dr. Joe says: Removing a small piece of a dandelion.
BIOSIMILAR
(BYE-OH-SIM-U-LAR)
A biologic medication that functions exactly the same as the original brand-name biologic
BLOOD CLOT
(BLOOD CLOT)
A clump of cells and proteins that clogs or blocks a blood vessel in the body
Dr. Joe says: A dam that does not allow water to drain.
BONE MARROW
(BONE MARE-OH)
A substance located inside the bones where many types of blood cells are produced
BRACHYTHERAPY
(BRAH-KEE-THAIR-A-PEE)
High doses of high energy waves delivered through an implant directly into tissue
Dr. Joe says: A cleanup crew that kills any remaining dandelion seeds in a very small area of the yard.
BRCA GENE MUTATION
(BRAK-AH JEAN MU-TAY-SHUN)
An abnormal or mutated breast cancer gene that is passed down from parent to child and is associated with an increased chance of developing breast cancer and other cancers
Dr. Joe says: When part of the car's engine is broken, causing the car to speed out of control.
BRCAPRO
(BRAK-AH-PRO)
A calculation tool used to help estimate a patient’s risk of developing cancer using known risk factors
Dr. Joe says: Assessing how fertile the garden is and the risk that a dandelion will grow.
BREAST CANCER
(BREST CAN-SIR)
An abnormal growth that originates from breast tissue
Dr. Joe says: A dandelion.
BREAST IMPLANT
(BREST IM-PLANT)
An artificial breast used in reconstructive surgery
Dr. Joe says: Rebuilding the garden using flowers.
BREAST RECONSTRUCTION SURGERY
(BREST REE-CON-STRUHK-SHUN SIR-JER-REE)
Surgery to restore the breast to a near-normal appearance
Dr. Joe says: Replacing the original garden to look like the original garden.
BREAST SELF-EXAMINATION
(BREST SELF IG-ZAM-IN-A-SHUN)
Using your hands to feel for abnormal tissue in your breast
Dr. Joe says: The view of the flowerbed from a balcony; black and white, fuzzy photograph.

C

CANCER SCREENING
(CAN-SIR SKREE-NING)
Using a test to find cancer at an early point in the course of the disease
Dr. Joe says: Examining the garden very carefully to find a dandelion while is it very small and easy to remove.
CARPAL TUNNEL SYNDROME
(CAR-POOL TON-NOL SIN-DROME)
Numbness, tingling, or weakness in the hand
CATARACT
(CAT-ER-ACT)
A fogging of the lens of the eye
CELL
(SEL)
One of the most basic components of all living things that together form the entire body and contains many smaller parts that guide its function
Dr. Joe says: A car with many components.
CELLULITIS
(SEL-U-LIE-TIS)
Infection of the skin
CERVICAL CANCER
(SIR-VEH-KIL CAN-SIR)
An abnormal growth that originates from cervical tissue
Dr. Joe says: A dandelion.
CHECKPOINT INHIBITOR
(CHECK-POINT IN-HIB-IT-ER)
A type of medication with proteins that block the signals that allow cancers to hide from the immune system
CHEMOTHERAPY
(KEY-MOW-THAIR-AH-PEE)
Medication used to treat cancer
Dr. Joe says: A general weed killer.
CHEST RADIATION
(CHEST RAY-DEE-A-SHUN)
An area of the chest that has been previously treated with radiation
Dr. Joe says: Fertile soil.
Cholangiocarcinoma
(COAL-AN-GEE-OH-CAR-SI-NO-MA)
An abnormal growth that forms from biliary cells inside the liver
CIRRHOSIS
(SIR-OH-SIS)
Chronic liver disease that results in liver dysfunction and scarring; commonly caused by alcohol abuse, hepatitis B and hepatitis C infections, and fatty liver (non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH))
CLAUS
(KLAOOS)
A calculation tool used to help estimate a patient’s risk of developing cancer using known risk factors
Dr. Joe says: Assessing how fertile the garden is and the risk that a dandelion will grow.
CLINICIAN
(KLIN-ISH-SHUN)
A doctor, nurse, or medical care provider
Dr. Joe says: A gardener.
CLINICIAN BREAST EXAMINATION
(KLIN-ISH-SHUN BREST IG-ZAM-IN-A-SHUN)
Medical professional feeling for abnormal tissue in the breast
Dr. Joe says: The view of the flowerbed from a balcony; black and white, fuzzy photograph.
COLITIS
(CO-LIE-TIS)
A condition that causes the body to attack itself (autoimmune disease), causing inflammation of the bowel
COLON CANCER
(COAL-IN CAN-SIR)
An abnormal growth that originates from colon tissue
Dr. Joe says: A dandelion.
COLONOSCOPY
(COAL-IN-AH-SKUH-PEE)
A procedure that examines the colon or large intestine
Dr. Joe says: A tool to look for dandelions or wildflowers in the garden.
COMPLETE RESPONSE
(COM-PLEAT REE-SPONSE)
When a cancer is no longer visible after treatment
Dr. Joe says: When the dandelions are no longer visible.
CONTRAST DYE
(CON-TRAST DIE)
A chemical injected into the body to highlight blood flow
Dr. Joe says: Neon paint used to spot dandelions.
CORE NEEDLE BIOPSY
(CORE NEE-DOL BYE-OP-SEE)
Removal of tissue using a large needle
Dr. Joe says: Procedure to remove an apple core.
CT SCAN
(C-T SCAN)
An imaging technique that uses x-rays to see the inside of the body
Dr. Joe says: Taking a picture of the entire yard from a hot air balloon.
CTLA-4 INHIBITOR
(C-T-L-A-FOUR IN-HIB-IT-ER)
A type of checkpoint inhibitor (immunotherapy) that works to activate the immune system by overriding a false stop signal sent by cancer cells
CURABLE
(CURE-A-BOWL)
The ability to eliminate all of the cancer without recurrence
Dr. Joe says: When all the dandelions can be removed and will never come back.
CYBERKNIFE®
(SIGH-BUR-NIFE)
A very precise radiation technique that delivers high doses of radiation to a very targeted area
Dr. Joe says: Using a very focused, intense heat to destroy a single dandelion in a garden.
CYCLE
(SIGH-COAL)
The block of time needed to complete one portion of the planned treatment that is repeated at a regular interval
Dr. Joe says: The timeline for when to apply the weed killer.
CYST
(CIST)
A small enclosed collection of fluid
Dr. Joe says: A water balloon.
CYTOKINE
(SIGH-TOW-KINE)
Proteins that signal immune cells to activate
Dr. Joe says: A messenger.
CYTOTOXIC T-LYMPHOCYTE-ASSOCIATED PROTEIN 4 (CTLA-4)
(SIGH-TOW-TAW-SIK T LIMFF-O-SITE AH-SOW-SHE-A-TID PRO-TEEN FOUR)
A protein found on T cells that keeps the immune system from overreacting

D

DEEP VEIN THROMBOSIS (DVT)
(DEEP VEIN THROM-BOW-SIS)
A blood clot in the legs
DEOXYRIBONUCLEIC ACID (DNA)
(DEE-OX-SEE-RYE-BOW-NEW-CLAY-IK AH-SID)
The blueprint of a cell that controls the function of all components within the cell
Dr. Joe says: The engine of a car.
Depression
(DE-PRESS-SHUN)
Feelings of sadness or hopelessness
DERMATITIS
(DURM-UH-TIE-TIS)
A condition that causes the body to attack itself (autoimmune disease), causing inflammation of the skin
DIAGNOSTIC MAMMOGRAM
(DIE-AG-NAST-IK MAM-O-GRAM)
Using a mammogram machine to obtain a more in-depth view of an area when a mass or abnormality is suspected
Dr. Joe says: Using a special tool to get a close-up view of the garden when looking for dandelions.
DIAGNOSTIC MRI
(DIE-AG-NAST-IK M-R-I)
Using an MRI machine to obtain a much more in-depth view of an area when a mass or abnormality is suspected
Dr. Joe says: Using a very special tool to get a close-up view of the garden when looking for dandelions.
DIAGNOSTIC ULTRASOUND
(DIE-AG-NAST-IK ALL-TRA-SOUND)
Using an ultrasound machine to obtain a more in-depth view of an area when a mass or abnormality is suspected
Dr. Joe says: Using a special tool to get a close-up view of the garden when looking for dandelions.
DISTANT RECURRENCE
(DIS-TINT RE-CER-ENCE)
Cancer that comes back far away from the location of the original tumor
Dr. Joe says: A dandelion returns in a flowerbed far away from the original flowerbed.
DNA MUTATION
(D-N-A MU-TAY-SHUN)
A change in DNA that can lead to or cause cancer
Dr. Joe says: A gas pedal getting stuck.
DUCTAL CARCINOMA IN SITU (DCIS)
(DUCK-TOOL CAR-SIN-O-MA IN SIGH-TWO)
A type of premalignant breast cancer
Dr. Joe says: A tulip bulb.

E

EARLY ONSET MENOPAUSE
(ER-LEE ON-SET MEN-AH-PAUSE)
Menopause that begins at a much younger age, which can be caused by medication, ovarian removal, or pituitary dysfunction
Dr. Joe says: When the garden lacks certain fertilizers, causing changes in the garden and yard.
ELECTROCARDIOGRAM (EKG)
(E-LEC-TRO-CAR-DEE-O-GRAHM)
A test to check for an abnormal heart rate or changes to the heart
ENCEPHALITIS
(EN-SEF-UH-LIE-TIS)
A condition that causes the body to attack itself (autoimmune disease), causing inflammation of the brain
ENDOCRINOPATHY
(EN-DOE-CREE-NAH-PAH-THEE)
Inflammation of the pituitary or adrenal glands
ESTROGEN
(ES-TRO-JIN)
A hormone or chemical that is needed for normal bodily functions in women
ESTROGEN RECEPTOR (ER)
(ES-TRO-JIN REE-SEP-TOR)
The protein in a cell that is controlled by the female hormone estrogen
Dr. Joe says: A specific component of the dandelion that attaches to fertilizer or weed killer; a specific shape on a dandelion’s leaves.
ESTROGEN RECEPTOR POSITIVE (ER+)
(ES-TRO-JIN REE-SEP-TOR PAUSE-AH-TIV)
Cancer that has estrogen receptors present in the cells
Dr. Joe says: A dandelion that has a specific shape on its leaves.
ETIOLOGY
(E-T-ALL-O-GEE)
The causes of cancer
Dr. Joe says: What causes a car to go out of control.
EXCISIONAL
(EX-SIZ-SHUN-OL)
Removal of a tissue sample
Dr. Joe says: Removal of a piece of a plant.
EXCISIONAL BIOPSY
(EX-SIZ-SHUN-OL BYE-OP-SEE)
Surgical removal of a larger piece of abnormal tissue or an entire small mass
Dr. Joe says: Removing a large piece of a plant or an entire small plant.
EXTENSIVE DISEASE
(EX-TEN-ZIV DUH-ZEEZ)
Recurrent cancer that causes big problems because it has grown so large
Dr. Joe says: When the gas pedal is stuck, causing the car to speed out of control.
EXTENT OF THE DISEASE
How far the disease has spread
Dr. Joe says: How far the dandelion has spread.
EXTERNAL BEAM RADIATION
(EX-TURN-NOL BEAM RAY-DEE-A-SHUN)
High energy waves used to treat an area of the body
Dr. Joe says: A cleanup crew that kills any remaining dandelion seeds in a specific area of the yard.
EXTRAVASATION
(EX-TRAH-VAH-SAY-SHUN)
Leaking of medication outside of a blood vessel into the skin

F

FEAR OF CANCER RECURRENCE (FOCR)
The development of fear or worry that cancer will return following the completion of treatment
FINE NEEDLE ASPIRATION (FNA)
(FINE NEE-DOL AS-PER-A-SHUN)
The withdrawal of fluid or tissue from the body with a needle
Dr. Joe says: Removing a very small piece of a plant.

G

GAIL MODEL
(GAIL MOD-OL)
A tool used to help estimate a patient’s risk of developing breast cancer using known risk factors
Dr. Joe says: Assessing how fertile the garden is and the risk that a dandelion will grow.
GENE
(JEAN)
A part of DNA that determines human characteristics
Dr. Joe says: A part of the engine of a car.
GENE MUTATION
(JEAN MU-TAY-SHUN)
A change in DNA that can lead to or cause cancer
Dr. Joe says: A gas pedal getting stuck.
GENERIC
(JEN-AIR-IK)
An exact copy of a brand-name traditional medication

H

HEART DISEASE
(HART DUH-ZEEZ)
A condition that affects the heart's function, which can lead to chest pain and heart attacks
HEPATITIS
(HEP-UH-TIE-TIS)
A condition that causes the body to attack itself (autoimmune disease), causing inflammation of the liver
Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC)
(HEH-PAT-OH-CELL-YOU-LAR CAR-SI-NO-MA)
An abnormal growth that forms from hepatocytes inside the liver
Hepatocytes
(HEH-PAH-TOE-SITES)
Cells that make up the liver
HER2/NEU RECEPTOR POSITIVE (HER2/NEU+)
(HER-TWO-NEW REE-SEP-TOR PAUSE-AH-TIV)
Cancer that has HER2/neu receptors present in the cells
Dr. Joe says: A dandelion that has a specific shape on its leaves.
HER2/NEU RECEPTOR POSITIVE INHIBITOR (HER2/NEU+ INHIBITOR)
(HER-TWO-NEW REE-SEP-TOR PAUSE-AH-TIV IN-HIB-IT-ER)
A medication that targets HER2/neu receptors, preventing HER2/neu positive cancer cells from growing and dividing
Dr. Joe says: A targeted weed killer that prevents certain types of dandelions from growing and duplicating.
HIGH DOSE LOCAL RADIATION  
(HI DOSE LOW-COAL RAY-DEE-A-SHUN)
High doses of high energy waves delivered through an implant directly into tissue
Dr. Joe says: A cleanup crew that kills any remaining dandelion seeds in a very small area of the yard.
HIGH-RISK PATIENT
(HI RESK PAY-SHNT)
A person who is more likely to develop a condition
Dr. Joe says: A very fertile garden where dandelions are more likely to grow.
Hodgkin Lymphoma (HL)
(HODJ-KIN LIMFF-O-MAH)
An abnormal growth of infection-fighting cells (lymphocytes) that is identified by a specific cancerous cell called the Reed-Sternberg Cell
HORMONAL THERAPY
(HORE-MOAN-OL THAIR-AH-PEE)
Anticancer medication used to target estrogen and progesterone receptors
Dr. Joe says: Treatment that prevents a car’s engine from running by blocking the gas line.
HORMONE
(HORE-MOAN)
Chemicals or proteins in the body which control many bodily functions
HORMONE SENSITIVITY
(HORE-MOAN SEN-SEH-TIV-EH-TEE)
When cancer cells are sensitive to hormones (like estrogen or progesterone), driving the growth of tumors
Dr. Joe says: Supercharged gas in your car that makes the car go really fast; fertilizer that makes dandelions grow.
HORMONE STIMULATION
(HORE-MOAN STIM-U-LAY-SHUN)
When cancer cells are sensitive to hormones (like estrogen or progesterone), driving the growth of tumors
Dr. Joe says: Supercharged gas in your car that makes the car go really fast; fertilizer that makes dandelions grow.
hospice care
(HAA-SPIS CARE)
Focused on improving quality of life for those no longer on active treatment

I

IMMUNE SYSTEM
(EM-MUNE SIS-TEM)
A network of proteins and cells that work together to stop invaders from taking over the body and causing many problems
IMMUNIZATION
(EM-MUN-EH-ZEH-SHUN)
A medication that stimulates the immune system to prevent or protect against a certain infection
Dr. Joe says: A herbicide used against some infection in a garden that protects the normal flowers.
IMMUNO-ONCOLOGY THERAPY
(EM-MUNO ONC-COL-UH-GEE THAIR-AH-PEE)
Immunotherapy treatment for cancer
IMMUNOTHERAPY
(EM-MUN-O-THAIR-AH-PEE)
Anticancer medication that alters the function of immune cells, triggering the immune
INCURABLE
(IN-CURE-A-BOWL)
The inability to eliminate all of the cancer without recurrence
Dr. Joe says: When the dandelions will return even if removed.
INFUSION PORT
(IN-FEW-SHUN PORT)
A device placed under the skin in the chest used to administer IV medications more safely
Dr. Joe says: A better way to deliver weed killer to the weeds.
INSOMNIA
(IN-SOM-NEE-AH)
The inability or difficulty falling or staying asleep
INTERFERON
(IN-TER-FEAR-ON)
An early immunotherapy medication used to treat melanoma; a cytokine
INTERLEUKIN 2 (IL-2)
(IN-TER-LOU-KIN TWO)
An early immunotherapy medication used to treat melanoma; a cytokine
INTRAMUSCULAR (IM)
(INTRA-MUS-CUE-LER)
Medication injected into the muscle
Dr. Joe says: A method to distribute weed killer in the garden.
INTRAVENOUS (IV)
(IN-TRA-VEE-NUS)
Medication injected into the vein; IV infusion
Dr. Joe says: A method to distribute weed killer in the garden.
INVASIVE
(IN-VAY-ZIV)
Something that penetrates or enters
Dr. Joe says: Roots of a dandelion that grow deep into the soil.
INVASIVE CANCER
(IN-VAY-ZIV CAN-SIR)
A growth that penetrates or enters the surrounding tissue and can spread to other parts of the body
Dr. Joe says: A dandelion with roots that have grown deep in the soil.
INVASIVE DUCTAL CARCINOMA
(IN-VAY-ZIV DUCK-TOOL CAR-SIN-O-MA)
The most common type of malignant breast cancer
Dr. Joe says: A specific model of a car, like Honda’s SUV.
INVASIVE LOBULAR CARCINOMA
(IN-VAY-ZIV LOB-U-LER CAR-SIN-O-MA)
A type of malignant breast cancer
Dr. Joe says: A specific model of a car, like Honda’s minivan.
INVASIVE PROCEDURE
(IN-VAY-ZIV PRO-SEE-JURE)
A test that requires something to penetrate or enter the body
Dr. Joe says: Removing a piece of a dandelion for testing; using a shovel to dig out an unwanted growth in the garden.
ITISES
(EYE-TIS-IS)
Inflammatory conditions with names ending with “itis”; autoimmune diseases
IV INFUSION
(I-V IN-FEW-SHUN)
Medication injected into the vein; IV infusion
Dr. Joe says: A method to distribute weed killer in the garden.

L

LESION
(LEE-SHUN)
A mass or abnormal growth
Dr. Joe says: A plant or weed in the garden.
LIGAND
(LIE-GAN)
A protein that attaches to a receptor, turning "on" the receptor’s function
Dr. Joe says: A key.
LOBULAR CARCINOMA IN SITU (LCIS)
(LOB-U-LER CAR-SIN-O-MA IN SIGH-TWO)
A type of premalignant breast cancer
Dr. Joe says: A tulip bulb.
LOCAL
(LOW-COAL)
Nearby
Dr. Joe says: A single flowerbed.
LOCAL DISEASE
(LOW-COAL DUH-ZEEZ)
Cancer that remains near the original cancer that can usually be removed with one surgical procedure
Dr. Joe says: A dandelion in a single flowerbed.
LOCAL RECURRENCE
(LOW-COAL REE-CER-ENCE)
Cancer that comes back near or close to the location of the original tumor
Dr. Joe says: A dandelion that returns in the original or nearby flowerbed.
LOCAL SPREAD
(LOW-COAL SPRED)
Disease that has only spread to areas near the original cancer
Dr. Joe says: Deep-rooted, seeded dandelion(s) in a single flowerbed or in nearby flowerbeds.
LOCAL TREATMENT
(LOW-COAL TREET-MINT)
Techniques targeting a single area of the body to eliminate or control a cancer
Dr. Joe says: Digging up a dandelion in one flowerbed.
LOCALLY ADVANCED DISEASE
(LOW-COAL-LEE ADD-VANST DUH-ZEEZ)
Disease that has spread beyond the original cancer and cannot be removed with a single procedure
Dr. Joe says: Very deep-rooted dandelion(s) that cannot be removed with a single procedure.
LOCALLY INVASIVE DISEASE
(LOW-COAL-LEE IN-VAY-ZIV DUH-ZEEZ)
Disease that has spread to and invaded the chest wall or skin
Dr. Joe says: A very deep-rooted dandelion.
LUMPECTOMY
(LUMP-EC-TOE-ME)
Removal of only a breast tumor with a small amount of normal breast tissue
Dr. Joe says: Using a shovel to dig out a dandelion and limited excess soil.
LUNG CANCER
(LUNG CAN-SIR)
An abnormal growth that originates from lung tissue
Dr. Joe says: A dandelion.
LUPUS
(LUE-PUSS)
A condition that causes the body to attack itself (autoimmune disorder), leading to damage or inflammation of many parts of the body
LYMPH NODE INVOLVEMENT
(LIMFF NODE IN-VOLV-MINT)
Cancer that has spread to the lymph nodes
Dr. Joe says: Dandelion seeds that have landed in nearby flowerbeds.
LYMPH NODE SAMPLING
(LIMFF NODE SAM-PULL-ING)
The removal of lymph nodes for testing
Dr. Joe says: Removing a plant from a nearby flowerbed.
LYMPH NODES
(LIMFF NODES)
Glands that filter bodily fluid and react to infections
Dr. Joe says: Tiered flowerbeds with a drainage system; a nearby flowerbed.
LYMPHEDEMA
(LIMFF-A-DEEM-MA)
Chronic swelling of a limb after lymph nodes are removed
Dr. Joe says: A dam that does not allow water to drain.
LYMPHOCYTES
(LIMFF-O-SITES)
Infection-fighting cells commonly found in the lymph nodes and blood

M

MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING (MRI)
(MAG-NET-IK RES-ON-NENTS IM-A-JING)
A loud banging machine that uses magnets to obtain pictures of the inside of the body
Dr. Joe says: Moving flowers to see dandelions hiding below; high-definition color, digitally enhanced photograph.
Maintenance Therapy
(MAIN-TEN-ENCE THAIR-AH-PEE)
Ongoing systemic treatment of a controlled active disease
Dr. Joe says: Continually applying weed killer to the entire yard.
MALIGNANT
(MA-LIG-NENT)
A cancer or abnormal tumor that grows uncontrollably and may spread to other parts of the body
Dr. Joe says: An unwanted weed or dandelion in your garden.
MAMMOGRAM
(MAM-O-GRAM)
A screening test that uses x-rays to look for breast cancer
Dr. Joe says: A standing view of the flowerbed; black and white, sharp digital photograph.
MASS
(MAS)
An abnormal growth of tissue
Dr. Joe says: A dandelion in the garden.
MECHANISTIC TARGET OF RAPAMYCIN (MTOR)
(MEH-CAH-NEH-STIK TAR-GET OF RAP-AH-MY-SIN)
Proteins that regulate cell growth and duplication
Dr. Joe says: A part of a dandelion that regulates its growth and spread.
MECHANISTIC TARGET OF RAPAMYCIN INHIBITOR (MTOR INHIBITOR)
(MEH-CAH-NEH-STIK TAR-GET OF RAP-AH-MY-SIN IN-HIB-IT-ER)
Medication that targets mTOR proteins to block cell growth and duplication
Dr. Joe says: A targeted weed killer that prevents certain types of dandelions from growing and duplicating.
MENOPAUSE
(MEN-A-PAUSE)
When estrogen levels fall and ovarian function is lost, leading to symptoms including hot flashes, mood changes, osteoporosis, and lack of menstrual periods
Dr. Joe says: When the garden lacks certain fertilizers, causing changes in the garden and yard.
METASTASIZE
(ME-TAH-STAH-SIZE)
To spread to other sites of the body
Dr. Joe says: Dandelion seeds that have spread throughout the yard.
METASTATIC  
(MET-AH-STAT-IK)
Spread
Dr. Joe says: Dandelion seeds that have spread throughout the yard.
METASTATIC BREAST CANCER
(MET-AH-STAT-IK BREST CAN-SIR)
Breast cancer that has spread throughout the body through the bloodstream
Dr. Joe says: Dandelion seeds that have spread throughout the yard.
METASTATIC DISEASE
(MET-AH-STAT-IK DUH-ZEEZ)
Disease that has spread throughout the body through the bloodstream
Dr. Joe says: Dandelion seeds that have spread throughout the yard.
MINIMALLY SYMPTOMATIC RECURRENCE
(MIN-AH-MOLE-LEE SIM-TOE-MAT-IK RE-CER-ENCE)
Recurrent cancer that only causes minimal problems and mild pain
Dr. Joe says: When the car is approaching the brick wall at near normal speeds.
MRI-GUIDED BIOPSY
(M-R-I GUY-DID BYE-OP-SEE)
A technique that uses an MRI machine to locate a growth and direct the placement of a needle in order to obtain a tissue sample
Dr. Joe says: A really special tool used to remove a piece of an abnormal growth in the garden to determine if it is a weed.
MUCOSITIS
(MUE-CO-SIGH-TIS)
A condition that causes the body to attack itself (autoimmune disease), causing inflammation of the surface of the intestinal tract (like the mouth or colon)
MULTIFOCAL DISEASE
(MALL-TEE-FOE-COAL DUH-ZEEZ)
Disease that has spread close to the original cancer, resulting in multiple cancers in a single area
Dr. Joe says: When there are multiple dandelions in a single flowerbed.
MUTATION
(MU-TAY-SHUN)
A change in DNA that can lead to or cause cancer
Dr. Joe says: A gas pedal getting stuck.
MYOSITIS
(MY-OH-SIGH-TIS)
A condition that causes the body to attack itself (autoimmune disease), causing inflammation of the muscles

N

NCCN GUIDELINES
(N-C-C-N GUIDE-LINES)
Comprehensive treatment guidelines used to direct doctors on how to best treat a patient’s cancer
Dr. Joe says: Guidelines for treating a garden.
NEOADJUVANT TREATMENT
(NEE-O-ADD-JOO-VENT TREET-MINT)
Anticancer treatment given before surgery
Dr. Joe says: Applying weed killer to the entire yard before removing the dandelion.
NEPHRITIS
(NEFF-RYE-TIS)
A condition that causes the body to attack itself (autoimmune disease), causing inflammation of the kidney
NEUROPATHY
(NER-OP-AH-THEE)
Numbness or tingling in the hands and feet
NEUTROPENIA
(NEW-TRAH-PEE-NEE-AH)
Increased risk of infection caused by the reduction in the number of infection-fighting cells
NONINVASIVE
(NON-IN-VAY-ZIV)
Something that does not penetrate or enter
Dr. Joe says: Roots of a dandelion that grow on the surface.
NONINVASIVE CANCER
(NON-IN-VAY-ZIV CAN-SIR)
A growth or tumor that has not penetrated or entered the surrounding tissue
Dr. Joe says: A newly planted tulip bulb with no roots.
NONINVASIVE PROCEDURE
(NON-IN-VAY-ZIV PRO-SEE-JURE)
A test that is performed outside the body
Dr. Joe says: Taking a picture of the flowerbed.

O

OBSERVATION
(OB-SIR-VAY-SHUN)
The period of time following the completion of surgery, radiation, targeted therapy, and chemotherapy
Dr. Joe says: The period the gardener waits to see if a dandelion will return.
ONCOLOGIST
(ON-CALL-AH-JIST)
A doctor who cares for cancer patients
Dr. Joe says: A gardener.
OSTEOPOROSIS
(AH-STEA-O-POOR-O-SIS)
The weakening of the bones
OVARIAN CANCER
(OH-VEH-REE-UHN)
An abnormal growth that originates from ovarian tissue
Dr. Joe says: A dandelion.
OVERALL SURVIVAL
(O-VER-ALL SIR-VIVE-OL)
The expected amount of time a patient will live after diagnosis
Dr. Joe says: How long until a garden is completely infested with dandelions.

P

PALLIATIVE CARE
(PA-LEE-UH-TIV CARE)
Focused on improving quality of life through management of side effects and symptoms related to treatment and the cancer itself
PANCREATITIS
(PAN-CREE-UH-TIE-TIS)
A condition that causes the body to attack itself (autoimmune disease), causing inflammation of the pancreas
PARTIAL RESPONSE
(PART-SHUL REE-SPONSE)
When a cancer shrinks by 30% or more because of treatment
Dr. Joe says: When a dandelion shrinks in size by at least 30%.
PATHOGEN
(PATH-O-JIN)
A foreign invader in the body
Dr. Joe says: A computer virus.
PATHOLOGIST
(PATH-ALL-O-JIST)
A doctor who specializes in looking at tissue samples to identify diseases such as cancer
Dr. Joe says: A special gardener.
PATHOLOGY
(PATH-ALL-O-GEE)
Looking closely at removed tissue samples to identify if the tissue is abnormal
Dr. Joe says: Looking very closely at a plant to determine if it is a weed.
PD-1 INHIBITOR
(P-D-ONE IN-HIB-IT-ER)
A type of checkpoint inhibitor (immunotherapy) that works to override the signal of the PD-L1, unlocking the cell and activating the T cell against the cancer cells
PD-L1 INHIBITOR
(P-D-L-ONE IN-HIB-IT-ER)
A type of checkpoint inhibitor (immunotherapy) that works to prevent PD-1 and PD-L1 from connecting, blocking the unwanted “stop signal” sent by the cancer cell
PER OS (PO)
(PER OOS)
Medication taken by mouth; orally
Dr. Joe says: A method to distribute weed killer in the garden.
PET SCAN
(PET SCAN)
An imaging technique that measures how fast lymphoma cells are growing by taking pictures of the inside of the body using a special dye
PLACEBO
(PLAH-SEE-BOW)
A “substitute” medication or harmless substance used in some clinical trials to help prove benefit of the treatment being tested
PLATELETS
(PLATE-LITS)
Cells in the blood that prevent bleeding
Dr. Joe says: Worms or other natural organisms that help protect the garden.
PNEUMONIA
(NEW-MOAN-YAH)
Infection of the lungs
PNEUMONITIS
(NEW-MUH-NIGH-TIS)
A condition that causes the body to attack itself (autoimmune disease), causing inflammation of the lungs
POST-TRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER (PTSD)
A mental health condition that some people develop after experiencing or witnessing a life-threatening event that causes intense negative feelings
POSTMENOPAUSAL
(POST-MEN-A-PAUSE-OL)
When a woman has not had a menstrual period for 12 months, and it is not expected to resume
PREMALIGNANT
(PRE-MA-LIG-NENT)
A growth that will worsen and grow into a cancer, becoming malignant, if not removed
Dr. Joe says: A tulip bulb.
PREVENTION  
(PRE-VEN-SHUN)
A treatment or tactic used to help keep a condition from developing
Dr. Joe says: Applying weed killer to stop a seed from growing into a plant.
PROGESTERONE RECEPTOR POSITIVE (PR+)
(PRO-JEST-ER-OWN REE-SEP-TOR PAUSE-AH-TIV)
Cancer that has progesterone receptors present in the cells
Dr. Joe says: A dandelion that has a specific shape on its leaves.
PROGNOSIS
(PRAHG-NO-SIS)
A predicted outcome for groups of patients
Dr. Joe says: The chance a dandelion will return or not.
PROGRAMMED DEATH LIGAND 1 (PD-L1)
(PRO-GRAMD DETH LIE-GAND ONE)
A ligand that is found on cancer cells, which allows cancers to block normal T cell function
Dr. Joe says: A key.
PROGRAMMED DEATH RECEPTOR 1 (PD-1)
(PRO-GRAMMED DETH REE-SEP-TOR ONE)
A receptor that is located on T cells and other immune cells
Dr. Joe says: A lock.
progression-free survival
(PRO-GRES-SHUN FREE SIR-VIVE-OL)
The expected amount of time a treatment will work before the cancer starts growing
PROGRESSIVE DISEASE
(PRO-GRES-ZIV DUH-ZEEZ)
When a cancer continues to grow and increase in size (by 20% or more) despite treatment
Dr. Joe says: When a dandelion continues to grow in size (increasing by 20% or more).
PROPHYLACTIC
(PRO-FIL-ACK-TIK)
A technique or treatment used to prevent a condition before it starts
Dr. Joe says: An action to prevent a weed from growing.
PROPHYLACTIC BILATERAL MASTECTOMY
(PRO-FIL-ACK-TIK BY-LAT-ER-ALL MAS-TEC-TOE-ME)
The removal of both breasts to prevent the development of breast cancer in the future
Dr. Joe says: Removing the entire flowerbed and replacing it with a patio.
PROSTATE CANCER
(PRAH-STATE CAN-SIR)
An abnormal growth that originates from prostate tissue
Dr. Joe says: A dandelion.
PROTEIN
(PRO-TEEN)
A naturally occurring, large, complex substance made up of amino acids that is an essential part of living organisms
Dr. Joe says: A LEGO house or anything else LEGO blocks can build.
PULMONARY EMBOLISM (PE)
(PULL-MON-AIRY EM-BOW-LIZ-UM)
A blood clot in the lungs

R

RADIATION TREATMENT
(RAY-DEE-A-SHUN TREET-MINT)
High energy waves used to treat cancer in a specific area of the body
Dr. Joe says: A cleanup crew that kills any remaining dandelion seeds in a very small area of the yard.
RADIOLOGIST
(RAY-DEE-OL-O-JIST)
A doctor who interprets or reads images of the body
Dr. Joe says: A special gardener.
RADIOLOGY TECHNICIAN
(RAY-DE-ALL-O-GEE TEK-NEH-SHUN)
A medical professional who performs the tests that obtains x-ray images
Dr. Joe says: A gardener’s assistant.
RADIOSURGERY
(RAY-DEE-O-SIR-JER-REE)
A very precise radiation technique that delivers high doses of radiation to a very targeted area
Dr. Joe says: Using a very focused, intense heat to destroy a single dandelion in a garden.
RECEPTOR
(REE-SEP-TOR)
A protein in or on a cell that may control some functions of the cell
Dr. Joe says: The part of the dandelion that attaches to weed killer or fertilizer; the special shapes on a dandelion’s leaves.
RECURRENCE
(REE-CER-ENCE)
When a cancer returns or comes back
Dr. Joe says: When a dandelion regrows in the yard.
RECURRENCE RISK
(REE-CER-ENCE RISK)
The chance a cancer will return
Dr. Joe says: The chance a dandelion will return in the garden and yard.
RECURRENT BREAST CANCER
(REE-CER-ENT BREST CAN-SIR)
The return of breast cancer after a period of time following initial diagnosis
Dr. Joe says: A dandelion returning to the yard after some time.
RECURRENT CANCER
(REE-CER-ENT CAN-SIR)
The return of cancer after a period of time following initial diagnosis
Dr. Joe says: A dandelion returning to the yard after some time.
RECURRENT DISEASE
(REE-CER-ENT DUH-ZEEZ)
The return of cancer after a period of time following initial diagnosis
Dr. Joe says: A dandelion returning to the yard after some time.
RED BLOOD CELLS
(RED BLOOD SELS)
Cells in the blood that carry oxygen throughout the body
Dr. Joe says: Water that carries the fertilizer throughout the garden.
REGIMEN
(REH-JA-MIN)
The specific elements or medications guiding a patient’s treatment
Dr. Joe says: The plan that states which weed killers to use and how they are applied.
RELAPSE RATE
(RE-LAPS RATE)
The chance a cancer will return
Dr. Joe says: The chance a dandelion will return in the garden and yard.
REMISSION
(RE-MISH-SHUN)
The change in size of a cancer after treatment
Dr. Joe says: How far away is the field of dandelions now.
RESPONSE
(REE-SPONSE)
The change in size of a cancer after treatment
Dr. Joe says: How far away is the field of dandelions now.
RESPONSE EVALUATION CRITERIA IN SOLID TUMORS (RECIST)
Rules or guidelines used to categorize a cancer’s response to treatment
RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS
(RUE-MEH-TOYED ARE-THRI-TIS)
A condition that causes the body to attack itself (autoimmune disease), causing inflamed, swollen joints
risk of recurrence prognosis
The chance a cancer will return

S

SAMPLE
(SAM-PULL)
The tissue obtained from a biopsy or surgery
Dr. Joe says: A piece of a dandelion.
SARCOIDOSIS
(SAR-COY-DOE-SIS)
A noncancerous condition that causes inflammation, commonly involving the lungs, skin, and lymph nodes
SCREENING
(SKREE-NING)
Using a test to find a specific disease or condition at an early point in the course of a disease
Dr. Joe says: Examining the garden very carefully to find a dandelion while is it very small and easy to remove.
SCREENING TECHNIQUE
(SKREE-NING TEK-NEEK)
A procedure used to discover a disease at an early stage
Dr. Joe says: A method used to examine the garden.
SCREENING TEST
(SKREE-NING TEST)
A procedure used to discover a disease at an early stage
Dr. Joe says: A method used to examine the garden.
SELECTIVE ESTROGEN RECEPTOR DEGRADER (SERDS)
(SEL-EC-TIV ES-TRO-JIN REE-SEP-TOR DE-GRADE-ER)
A class of hormonal therapy that attaches to and destroys estrogen and progesterone receptors
Dr. Joe says: Treatment that prevents a car’s engine from running by removing the entire gas line.
SELECTIVE ESTROGEN RECEPTOR MODULATOR (SERMS)
(SEL-EC-TIV ES-TRO-JIN REE-SEP-TOR MOD-JOO-LAY-TER)
A class of hormonal therapy that blocks the functions of estrogen and progesterone receptors
Dr. Joe says: Treatment that prevents a car’s engine from running by blocking the gas line.
SENTINEL LYMPH NODE
(SEN-TIN-OL LIMFF NODE)
The lymph node first to receive drainage from a tumor
SENTINEL LYMPH NODE DISSECTION
(SEN-TIN-OL LIMFF NODE DIE-SEK-SHUN)
The surgical removal of one to three of the most important lymph nodes in the axilla that are found using an injected dye
Dr. Joe says: Looking in one to three flowerbeds for a dandelion seed.
SEROMA
(SIR-O-MA)
A collection of fluid that occurs after surgery
Dr. Joe says: An area affected after removal of a dandelion.
STABLE DISEASE
(STAY-BOWL DUH-ZEEZ)
When a cancer does not shrink or grow despite treatment  
Dr. Joe says: When the dandelion has not grown or shrunk.
STAGING
(STAY-JING)
The process of clearly defining a cancer using several measurable characteristics
Dr. Joe says: The process of evaluating the size and spread of dandelions.
STAIN
(STANE)
A technique that uses special liquids to identify unique parts of a cell
STEREOTACTIC
(STAIR-E-O-TAK-TIC)
A technique to exactly identify a place in the body
STEREOTACTIC BIOPSY
(STAIR-E-O-TAK-TIC BYE-OP-SEE)
A technique using x-rays to locate a growth and direct the placement of a needle in order to obtain a tissue sample
Dr. Joe says: A special tool to remove a piece of an abnormal growth in the garden to determine if it is a weed.
STEREOTACTIC BODY RADIOTHERAPY (SBRT)
(STAIR-E-O-TAK-TIC BOD-EE RAY-DEE-O-THAIR-AH-PEE)
A very precise radiation technique that delivers high doses of radiation to a very targeted area in the body
Dr. Joe says: Using a very focused, intense heat to destroy a single dandelion in a garden.
STEREOTACTIC RADIATION  
(STAIR-E-O-TAK-TIC RAY-DEE-A-SHUN)
A very precise radiation technique that delivers high doses of radiation to a very targeted area
Dr. Joe says: Using a very focused, intense heat to destroy a single dandelion in a garden.
STEREOTACTIC RADIOSURGERY (SRS)
(STAIR-E-O-TAK-TIC RAY-DEE-O-SIR-JER-REE)
A very precise radiation technique that delivers high doses of radiation to a very targeted area inside the brain
Dr. Joe says: Using a very focused, intense heat to destroy a single dandelion in a garden.
STOMATITIS
(STOW-MA-TIE-TIS)
A condition that causes the body to attack itself (autoimmune disease), causing inflammation or sores in the mouth, lips, or throat
SUBCUTANEOUS (SC, SQ)
(SUB-CUE-TAY-NEE-US)
Medication injected into the skin
Dr. Joe says: A method to distribute weed killer in the garden.
SUPPORTIVE CARE
Treatments that don’t directly treat or try to control the cancer, but help prevent complications or relieve many of the other problems associated with the disease and being a cancer patient
SUPPORTIVE THERAPY
Treatments that don’t directly treat or try to control the cancer, but help prevent complications or relieve many of the other problems associated with the disease and being a cancer patient
SURGERY
(SIR-JER-REE)
The physical removal of something (like a tumor)
Dr. Joe says: Using a shovel to dig up a dandelion.
SYMPTOMATIC EXTENSIVE DISEASE
(SIM-TOE-MAT-IK EX-TEN-ZIV DUH-ZEEZ)
Cancer that causes problems or symptoms because it has grown
Dr. Joe says: When the weeds are growing out of control, causing problems to the garden.
SYSTEMIC
(SIS-TEM-IK)
A process that affects the whole body
Dr. Joe says: The entire yard, including the flowerbeds.
SYSTEMIC SPREAD
(SIS-TEM-IK SPRED)
Disease that has spread throughout the body through the bloodstream
Dr. Joe says: Dandelion seeds that have spread throughout the yard.
SYSTEMIC TREATMENT
(SIS-TEM-IK TREET-MINT)
Techniques targeting the whole body to eliminate or control a cancer
Dr. Joe says: Weed killer to eliminate dandelions in the yard.

T

T CELL
(T SEL)
A type of immune cell that helps regulate and protect the body from foreign cells like infections or cancer
T-HELPER CELL
(T HELP-ER SEL)
A type of T cell that activates the immune system against an invader
T-KILLER CELL
(T KILL-ER SEL)
A type of T cell that kills pathogens
T-REGULATORY CELL
(T REG-U-LAH-TOUR-EE SEL)
A type of T cell that regulates the reaction of the immune system
TARGETED THERAPY
(TAR-GET-TED THAIR-AH-PEE)
Anticancer medication that attaches to a specific protein receptor and blocks the receptor’s normal function to stop cancer growth
Dr. Joe says: Treatment that prevents a car’s engine from running by blocking its fuel source.
TECHNIQUE
(TEK-NEEK)
A way of doing something
Dr. Joe says: A way to get rid of the dandelion.
TETANUS
(TEH-TAH-NUHS)
A bacterial infection that is transmitted through cuts in the skin and can cause severe muscle spasms
THROMBOCYTOPENIA
(THROM-BAH-SIGH-TAH-PEE-NEE-AH)
Low platelet count
THYROIDITIS
(THIGH-ROY-DIE-TIS)
A condition that causes the body to attack itself (autoimmune disease), causing inflammation of the thyroid
TISSUE
(TISH-YOU)
The accumulation of cells that make up parts of the body, like organs
Dr. Joe says: Multiple cars on a road.
TNM STAGING
(T-N-M STAY-JING)
Categories that are used to determine the stage of the disease; T – Tumor, N – Node, M – Metastatic
Dr. Joe says: A method to describe the size of a weed and how far it has spread.
TRADITIONAL CHEMICAL MEDICATION
Medications produced through a series of chemical reactions
TREATMENT
(TREET-MINT)
Techniques to help eliminate or control a disease
Dr. Joe says: How a gardener attempts to get rid of dandelions.
TREATMENT PLAN
(TREET-MINT PLAN)
A course of action outlining a patient’s care
Dr. Joe says: The plan for how the dandelions will be removed and the garden will be treated.
TUMOR
(TOO-MER)
An abnormal growth in the body
Dr. Joe says: Unwanted plants and weeds in your garden.
TUMOR GRADE
(TOO-MER GRADE)
How different a tumor is from normal tissue; an indication of how quickly a tumor may grow
Dr. Joe says: How different a weed looks from a normal flower, which indicates how fast a dandelion will grow.
TYRER-CUZICK
A calculation tool used to help estimate a patient’s risk of developing cancer using known risk factors
Dr. Joe says: Assessing how fertile the garden is and the risk that a dandelion will grow.

U

ULTRASOUND
(ALL-TRA-SOUND)
An imaging technique that uses sound waves to differentiate types of tissue
Dr. Joe says: Music equalizer.
ULTRASOUND GUIDED BIOPSY
(ALL-TRA-SOUND GUY-DID BYE-OP-SEE)
A technique that uses sound waves to locate a growth and direct the placement of a needle in order to obtain a tissue sample
Dr. Joe says: A special tool to remove a piece of an abnormal growth in the garden to determine if it is a weed.
UTERINE CANCER
(YOU-TER-IN CAN-SIR)
An abnormal growth that originates from uterine tissue

V

VACCINE
(VAX-ZEEN)
A treatment used to teach your immune system how to recognize certain foreign invaders and prevent disease
VISCERAL CRISIS
(VIS-SIR-OL CRY-SIS)
Recurrent cancer that causes critical, life-threatening problems usually involving organs
Dr. Joe says: When the weeds are growing out of control and the strongest weed killer is needed.

W

WHITE BLOOD CELLS
(WHITE BLOOD SELS)
Cells that fight off infections in the body
Dr. Joe says: Worms or other natural organisms that help protect the garden.

X

X-RAY
(EX-RAY)
Energy particles that pass through tissue to obtain an image of the body
CDK4 & CDK6 (CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE)
(C-D-K-FOUR AND C-D-K-SIX)
A part of the cell that regulates the growth and duplication of a cell